ENG FRA ITA
Jean-Luc Nespoulous (France)
Communication despite aphasia… and what if aphasic patients communicated better than they talk

Brief Biography

Currently:
Professor Emeritus, University of Toulouse
Honorary President of the « Société de Neuropsychologie de Langue Française »
M.A in English and M.A in General Linguistics (1970).
PhD in Linguistics (1973) with a thesis on agrammatism in Broca’s Aphasia.
Appointed « Assistant Professor » in the Department of Language Sciences (University of Toulouse) until 1980, he then leaves Toulouse to co-found, in 1982, with Pr. André Roch Lecours the « Théophile Alajouanine Laboratory » at the University of Montreal, Canada (nowadays CRIUGM). In 1986, in that same university, he is appointed « Full Professor » of Neuropsycholinguistics in the Department of Linguistics and Philology.
Back to Toulouse in 1988, he founds, in 1990, the « Neuropsycholinguistics Laboratory Jacques-Lordat » (Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail) within the Department of Language Sciences of that university.
He very actively participates to the launching, in 1990, of the Toulouse Network in Cognitive Sciences (PRESCOT) sponsored by the C.N.R.S (« Cognisciences Project »).
In 2000, he founds the « Toulouse Brain Sciences Institute » (ISCT) and remains its Director until 2007.
In 2007, he finally founds the « Interdisciplinary Research Unit OCTOGONE » gathering, for the first time in Toulouse researchers from both linguistics and psychology (n= 50).
« Silver Medal » from the CNRS in 2004 CNRS for his contribution to the development of Cognitive Sciences and Interdisciplinarity, he retires in 2010 at the end of his mandate as « Senior member » of the « Institut Universitaire de France » on the chair of Cognitive Neuropsycholinguistics.

Communication despite aphasia… and what if aphasic patients communicated better than they talk

If linguistic competence does require the mastery of the phonological and lexical structural units  of a natural language together with their morphosyntactic rules, « in situ » communicative competence  (Cherry, 1957, Hymes 1966) needs the calling up of several adaptative strategies in order to ensure adequately, with a high degree of cognitive flexibility,  the felicitous transfer of information.
If such a statement universally applies to any interactive speech acts (Austin, 1962 ; Searle, 1969…) between normal-speaking subjects, it is all the more valid when one comes to consider communication involving someone suffering from a language deficit (here « aphasia ») and fighting to « by-pass » it as much as possible.
Within the context of our presentation, we will focus more on the latter than on the former perspective, in an attempt to shed light upon adaptative (palliative) strategies developed by both the patient and his human environment in everyday semiotic practice (Nespoulous, 1973, 2014). To these intrinsic, and largely spontaneous, strategies may/must be obviously added up extrinsic strategies, whether induced by the speech therapist or relying on the modern technological tools of « augmentative communication » and « information/access for all » (Nespoulous & Virbel, 2007).
The notion of « shared handicap » will be developed and particular emphasis will laid upon the necessity, for speech therapists, to resort to a functional, cognitive-- but pragmatically « situated » -- neuropsycholinguistic approach of acquired aphasia.
 
References
 
Austin, J. How to do things with words, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1962.
 
Cherry, C. On human communication, Cambridge (Mass.), The M.I.T Press, 1957.
 
Hymes, D.H. « Two types of linguistic relativity », in W. Bright (Ed.) Sociolinguistics, The Hague, Mouton, 114-158, 1966.
 
Nespoulous, J-L., Etude linguistique de divers phénomènes d’agrammatisme, Thèse pour le Doctorat de 3ème cycle, Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail, 1973.
 
Nespoulous, J-L., « L’aphasie : du déficit à la mise en place de stratégies palliatives », in J-M. Mazaux., X. de Boissezon., P. Pradat-Diehl. & V. Brun (Eds.)., Communiquer malgré l’aphasie, Montpellier, Sauramps Médical, 11-19, 2014.
 
Nespoulous, J-L., « Intérêt de la recherche pour la clinique et vice versa. Clinique è Recherche èClinique è Recherche. Symptômes è Modélisations è Symptômes è modélisations », Rééducation Orthophonique, N°257, 21-34, 2014.                                                                                                                                                                   
 
Nespoulous, J-L. & Virbel, J. « From the study of language dysfunction and handicap^to a better understanding of linguistic processing in normality », in M. J. Ball & J.S. Damico (Eds.)., Clinical aphasiology. Future directions, Hove, Psychology Press, 107-124, 2007.
 
Searle, J. Speech Acts, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1969.

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